Removable partial denture (RPD) is a denture for partially edentulous patients who wants to have replacement teeth for functional and aesthetic reasons and those who can not have a bridge or fixed prosthesis due to lack of required teeth for support or due to financial reasons.
Importance of teeth is understood better only when you start loosing them.
Tooth loss can be due to
- Gum diseases
- Tooth decay
Consequences of tooth loss
- Aesthetics is compromised
- Speech problems
- Drifting, tilting, over eruption of teeth
- Difficulty in eating food
- Loss of vertical dimensions
- Deviation of lower jaw
- Loss of alveolar bone
How Removable Partial Dentures (RPD) works ?
Removable partial dentures (RPD) have replacement teeth fixed to an acrylic base that matches with your gums. Acrylic base may have metal framework that provides strength, clasps are usually present that attaches to the natural teeth. This holds the Removable partial dentures (RPD) in place.
What to expect from new Removable partial denture (RPD)?
- It takes time and practice to put in and take out your new Removable partial denture (RPD). It may feel a bit odd at first, tight and bulky also in the beginning.
- Salivation will be more in the starting.
- Minor gum irritation and soreness may occur in the beginning. If this happens visit your dentist for the solution.
- Start eating soft food that are cut into pieces with your new Removable partial denture (RPD) in the beginning. Avoid foods that are sticky and hard. As you will get used to your Removable partial denture (RPD), your eating experience will improve
- In the beginning it will be difficult to pronounce certain words. But with practice speaking will improve.
- Never force your Removable partial denture (RPD) into position by biting down. This can bend or break the clasp.
Are removable partial dentures worn 24 hrs a day ?
For first few days your dentist will ask you to wear Removable partial dentures (RPD) for 24 hrs even while sleeping. This allows your dentist to identify the areas on the denture that needs adjustments.
Once you are comfortable with your denture you will be advised to remove it before going to bed. This allows gums to rest.
Taking care of your Removable partial denture (RPD)
- Clean your Removable partial denture (RPD) daily. Remove it after eating and rinse off food particles.wet your toothbrush and clean it using denture cleaner or soap.
- Brush all the denture surfaces using soft bristled toothbrush. Clean all the surface properly.
- Do not use toothpaste on your denture as toothpaste contains abrasives which will damage the denture base and teeth.
- Keep it in water when you are not wearing it. Do not let your denture dry it can lose its shape.
- Take care of your natural teeth present . Brush them twice daily in the morning and at night properly.
- Keep your dentures away from children when you are not wearing. Kids may drop it and your denture can break.
- Do not swallow or gargle with your Removable partial denture (RPD).
- Always rinse your denture thoroughly before placing it in the mouth.
Types of Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
1. Normal acrylic Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
Used in patients where tissue changes are expected , where a permanent prosthesis can not be fabricated till the tissue stabilizes. They should never be used as a permanent or prolonged form of treatment because of the danger of destroying the remaining oral tissues.
Advantages of acrylic Removable partial dentures (RPD)
- Less invasive and cost effective.
- Additional teeth may be added depending upon some factors.
- They can be repaired easily.
- Can be relined
- Easy to clean
2. Flexible Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
Used in patients where tissue changes are expected , where a permanent prosthesis can not be fabricated till the tissue stabilizes. . They should never be used as a permanent or prolonged form of treatment. They are soft , flexible and have ability to engage in undercuts for retention.
Advantages of flexible Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
- Soft and inherent flexibility
- Will not warp or become brittle
- Clinically unbreakable
- Good biocompatibility
- No porosity so no bacteria can built up within it??
- No gingival inflammation
- More comfortable
- Lighter in weight
- Better chewing efficiency
- More retention and stability
Disadvantages of flexible removable partial dentures(RPD)
- Intended only for provisional or temporary applications
- Debonding of acrylic teeth with denture base
- Difficulty to adjust and polish
- Usually can not be relined
3. Cast partial denture
Consists of a cast metal framework that contains artificial teeth in acrylic resin
Advantages of cast partial denture
- They are stronger
- More durable
- More retentive
- Minimises tissue changes
- Reduces the need of relining and rebasing
Disadvantages of cast partial denture
- They are costly
- Time consuming
- They are heavy due to incorporation of metal framework
- Impossible to repair
- Aesthetically not pleasant
- Lack of ability to prevent damaging lateral stresses
4. Precision attachment Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
It is a connecting link between FPD and Removable Partial Denture (RPD) as it incorporates features common to both types. Used in treating terminally involved dental arches with a minimum of 7mm clearance between upper and lower ridges.
Advantages of Precision attachment Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
- Improved aesthetics
- Forces are directed to the long axis of the tooth
- Cross arch load transfer and prosthesis stabilization
- Maintainable periodontal health
- Can be adapted to compensate for future changes in the mouth
Disadvantages of Precision attachment Removable partial denture (RPD)
- Wearing of attachment components
- Requires aggressive tooth preparation
- Increased demand on oral hygiene performance
5. Implant supported Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
Implants can be combined with Removable Partial Denture (RPD) in a number of ways. They can be used with abutment to provide support to the prosthesis. Or implants can be used as abutments for a fixed prosthesis either by supporting Removable Partial Denture(RPD) or as abutment to a telescopic crown Removable Partial Denture (RPD).
Advantages of Implant supported Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
- Improved comfort and confidence
- Improved retention, support and stability
- Preservation of alveolar bone
- Better distribution of forces
- Elimination of damaging leverage to natural abutment teeth
Disadvantages of Implant supported Removable Partial Denture (RPD)
- Causes gum irritation
- Life of Removable Partial Denture (RPD) is not long
- Components may wear off so need to be changed from time to time