A tooth that is partially erupted or unerupted, beyond the chronological date of eruption, and will not assume a normal relationship with the other teeth and tissue is refered to as wisdom impacted tooth.
Order of Frequency
The teeth that are impacted are generally the mandibular 3rd molars(mandibular wisdom tooth) but the maxillary molars (maxillary wisdom tooth) and cuspids can all get impacted. The order of frequency is:
1. Mandibular 3rd molars (lower wisdom tooth)
2. Maxillary 3rd molars (upper wisdom tooth).
3. Maxillary cuspids.
4. Mandibular bicuspids.
5. Mandibular cuspids.
6. Maxillary bicuspids.
7. Maxillary central incisors.
8. Maxillary lateral incisors.
Causes of Impaction (wisdom impacted tooth)
1. Irregularity in the position and pressure of an adjacent tooth.
2. The density of the overlying or surrounding bone.
3. Longstanding chronic inflammation, with resultant increase in density of overlying mucous membrane.
4. Lack of space due to under-developed jaw. Arch length and tooth size discrepancy.
5. Over-retained primary teeth.
6.Premature loss of the primary teeth.
7. Acquired diseases, e.g. necrosis due to infection or abscesses.
8. Inflammatory changes in the bone due to exanthematous diseases in children.
9. Abnormal path of eruption of the tooth, due to traumatic forces, during the eruption period.
10. Ectopic position of the tooth bud.
- Congenital syphilis
- Endocrine dysfunctions
- Rare conditions
- Cleidocranial dysostosis
- Cleft palate.